Early Puberty and Risk of Depression

Youngsters-who-enter-puberty-early-are-at-increased-risk-of-depressionYoungsters who enter puberty early are at increased risk of depression, a new study suggests. Early puberty is linked with a number of factors associated with depression, such as poor self-image and high anxiety levels, according to the researchers. Early puberty was also linked to social problems, such as conflict with family and peers as well as having friends who were prone to getting into trouble, the study found.

Although the study found an association between early puberty and these factors, it’s important to note that it wasn’t designed to show that early puberty is the cause of these issues. “Only some teens are vulnerable to the effects of early maturation, particularly those with more disruption in their families and less support in their peer relationships,” Karen Rudolph, the study leader and professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois, US, said in a university news release. The study also found that early puberty was associated with an increased risk of depression in boys as well as girls.

“It is often believed that going through puberty earlier than peers only contributes to depression in girls. We found that early maturation can also be a risk for boys as they progress through adolescence, but the timing is different from that of girls. In girls, early maturation seems to trigger immediate psychological and environmental risks and consequent depression. Pubertal changes cause early maturing girls to feel badly about themselves, cope less effectively with social problems, affiliate with deviant peers, enter riskier and more stressful social contexts and experience disruption and conflict in their relationships,” Rudolph said.

Initially, boys who entered puberty early had much lower rates of depression than girls, but had similar rates by the end of the study’s fourth year. “While early maturation seemed to protect boys from the challenges of puberty initially, they experienced an emerging cascade of personal and contextual risks, negative self-image, anxiety, social problems and interpersonal stress that eventuated in depression as they moved through adolescence,” Rudolph said.

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